pyblp.options¶
Global options.

pyblp.options.
digits
¶ Number of digits displayed by status updates. The default number of digits is
7
. The number of digits can be changed to, for example,2
, withpyblp.options.digits = 2
. Type
int

pyblp.options.
verbose
¶ Whether to output status updates. By default, verbosity is turned on. Verbosity can be turned off with
pyblp.options.verbose = False
. Type
bool

pyblp.options.
verbose_tracebacks
¶ Whether to include full tracebacks in error messages. By default, full tracebacks are turned off. These can be useful when attempting to find the source of an error message. Tracebacks can be turned on with
pyblp.options.verbose_tracebacks = True
. Type
bool

pyblp.options.
verbose_output
¶ Function used to output status updates. The default function is simply
print
. The function can be changed, for example, to include an indicator that statuses are from this package, withpyblp.verbose_output = lambda x: print(f"pyblp: {x}")
. Type
callable

pyblp.options.
flush_output
¶ Whether to call
sys.stdout.flush()
after outputting a status update. By default, output is not flushed to standard output. To force standard output flushes after every status update, setpyblp.options.flush_output = True`. This may be particularly desirable for R users who are calling PyBLP from `reticulate <https://github.com/rstudio/reticulate>`_, since standard output is typically not automatically flushed to the screen in this environment. If PyBLP is imported as ``pyblp
, this setting can be enabled in R withpyblp$options$flush_output < TRUE
. Type
bool

pyblp.options.
dtype
¶ The data type used for internal calculations, which is by default
numpy.float64
. The other recommended option isnumpy.longdouble
, which is the only extended precision floating point type currently supported by NumPy. Although this data type will be used internally,numpy.float64
will be used when passing arrays to optimization and fixed point routines, which may not support extended precision. The library underlyingscipy.linalg
, which is used for matrix inversion, may also usenumpy.float64
.One instance in which extended precision can be helpful in the BLP problem is when there are a large number of near zero choice probabilities with small integration weights, which, under standard precision are called zeros when in aggregate they are nonzero. For example, Skrainka (2012) finds that using long doubles is sufficient to solve many utility floating point problems.
The precision of
numpy.longdouble
depends on the platform on which NumPy is installed. If the platform in use does not support extended precision, usingnumpy.longdouble
may lead to unreliable results. For example, on Windows, NumPy is usually compiled such thatnumpy.longdouble
often behaves likenumpy.float64
. Precisions can be compared withnumpy.finfo
by runningnumpy.finfo(numpy.float64)
andnumpy.finfo(numpy.longdouble)
. For more information, refer to this discussion.If extended precisions is supported, the data type can be switched with
pyblp.options.dtype = numpy.longdouble
. On Windows, it is often easier to install Linux in a virtual machine than it is to build NumPy from source with a nonstandard compiler. Type
dtype

pyblp.options.
finite_differences_epsilon
¶ Perturbation \(\epsilon\) used to numerically approximate derivatives with central finite differences:
(1)¶\[f'(x) = \frac{f(x + \epsilon / 2)  f(x  \epsilon / 2)}{\epsilon}.\]By default, this is the square root of the machine epsilon:
numpy.sqrt(numpy.finfo(options.dtype).eps)
. The typical example where this is used is when computing the Hessian, but it may also be used to compute Jacobians required for standard errors when analytic gradients are disabled. Type
float

pyblp.options.
pseudo_inverses
¶ Whether to compute MoorePenrose pseudoinverses of matrices with
scipy.linalg.pinv()
instead of their classic inverses withscipy.linalg.inv()
. This is by defaultTrue
, so pseudoinverses will be used. Up to small numerical differences, the pseudoinverse is identical to the classic inverse for invertible matrices. Using the pseudoinverse by default can help alleviate problems from, for example, nearsingular weighting matrices.To always attempt to compute classic inverses first, set
pyblp.options.pseudo_inverses = False
. If a classic inverse cannot be computed, an error will be displayed, and a pseudoinverse may be computed instead. Type
bool

pyblp.options.
collinear_atol
¶ Absolute tolerance for detecting collinear columns in each matrix of product characteristics and instruments: \(X_1\), \(X_2\), \(X_3\), \(Z_D\), and \(Z_S\).
Each matrix is decomposed into a \(QR\) decomposition and an error is raised for any column whose diagonal element in \(R\) has a magnitude less than
collinear_atol + collinear_rtol * sd
wheresd
is the column’s standard deviation.The default absolute tolerance is
1e14
. To disable collinearity checks, setpyblp.options.collinear_atol = pyblp.options.collinear_rtol = 0
. Type
float

pyblp.options.
weights_tol
¶ Tolerance for detecting integration weights that do not sum to one in each market, which is by default
1e10
. In most setups weights should essentially sum to one, but for example with importance sampling they may be slightly different. Warnings can be disabled by setting this tonumpy.inf
. Type
float

pyblp.options.
collinear_rtol
¶ Relative tolerance for detecting collinear columns, which is by default also
1e14
. Type
float

pyblp.options.
psd_atol
¶ Absolute tolerance for detecting nonpositive semidefinite matrices. For example, this check is applied to any custom weighting matrix, \(W\).
Singular value decomposition factorizes the matrix into \(U \Sigma V\) and an error is raised if any element in the original matrix differs in absolute value from \(V' \Sigma V\) by more than
psd_atol + psd_rtol * abs
whereabs
is the element’s absolute value.The default tolerance is
1e8
. To disable positive semidefinite checks, setpyblp.options.psd_atol = pyblp.options.psd_rtol = numpy.inf
. Type
float

pyblp.options.
psd_rtol
¶ Relative tolerance for detecting nonpositive definite matrices, which is by default also
1e8
. Type
float